Coal Miners In West Virginia To Become…Bee Keepers?

While many politicians are arguing in favor of “clean coal” — because they’ve been sleeping through economics classes — the real world is learning to adapt to the rapid decline of a once bustling industry. Coal is bleeding jobs in West Virginia. According to the Mine Safety and Health Administration, tens of thousands of jobs have opened up. But thanks to the Appalachian Beekeeping Collective (or ABC), those out-of-work coal miners might finally have someplace to go.

The best part of the deal? Those miners won’t just be helping the economy, they will be helping to promote a clean, strong, and sustainable environment here in West Virginia. And that’s exactly what we need right now.

The Appalachian Beekeeping Collective has tasked itself with preparing the miners for a new way of life, training them to maintain hives and keep bees healthy. Not everyone is heading off for the bee colonies, though. Some are training to enter the technology sector. Some miners have acknowledged that where they go really depends on where they came from — and when.

Former miner James Scyphers said, “The older folks want to get back to work, but mining is never going to be like it was in the ‘60s and ‘70s, and there is nothing to fall back on, no other big industries here, so all of these folks need retraining. Beekeeping is hands-on work, like mining, and requires on-the-job training. You need a good work ethic for both.”

Many former miners are happy they get to work outdoors.

A nonprofit organization called Appalachian Headwaters runs the ABC, and has sunk about $7.5 million into environmental restoration projects to help both the community and the environment. 

But guess where that $7.5 million came from? The ABC sued Alpha Natural Resources — a coal mining company — for its violation of the Clean Water Act, and won the $7.5 million settlement. 

Master beekeeper Cindy Bee said, “It wasn’t just the miners that lost their livelihoods when mining jobs disappeared; other industries started to wilt, too, and entire communities were affected. We’re doing something that can boost the town up.”

Usually beekeeping requires a hefty investment for supplies and training, but new entrants are finding it cheaper and easier than ever thanks to ABC’s investments. Those who do well can expect to take in over $10,000 of extra spending cash each season — and better than that, they can also expect to promote a better environment for all of us!

Have You Heard The 2019 Cicada Brood In West Virginia?

The cicadas that make up Brood VIII have emerged from hiding, and you’ve probably heard the insect orchestra so hard at work. They want to mate! The sound made by male cicadas — peaceful to some, grating to others — is a product of a complex mating ritual, and it can attract females from as far as a mile away. Thankfully, cicadas are not dangerous: they do not bite or carry disease, and although they can damage trees and tree roots, the damage is minimal and temporary.

Although cicadas appear at regular intervals, there are a few rare outliers that will emerge from their burrows a little bit earlier or later than scheduled. This is probably the result of genetic mutations, but there’s an evolutionary purpose behind them: in the event of a natural disaster that destroys or prevents a brood from emerging from the ground, the brood will still have a good chance to live on through those outliers who emerge early or late.

What kind of natural disaster can spell doom for an otherwise strong cicada brood?

  • The Ohio River flooded in 1937 after three weeks of heavy rain and snowmelt left the river waters anywhere from ten to twenty feet above the typical flood stage. 400 people died and there was about $500 million in property damage. If the flood had occurred only a few months later, it may have wiped out any cicada broods scheduled to come out of the ground.

  • There was a massive F-4 tornado on June 23 and 24, killing 66 people in Shinnston and Harrison Counties. Two other tornadoes left the eventual death toll at 104. This kind of natural disaster can disturb the soil where cicadas live by unearthing trees.

  • A rare — and powerful — earthquake struck Charleston in 1886, but its effects could be felt hundreds of miles away. It was about a 7.0 quake, and caused millions in damages. This is another natural event that can disturb the soil and damage cicada cycles.

  • Hurricane Hugo made landfall in the Southeast United States in 1989, doing tremendous amounts of damage in the process. Wind and flood damage in Virginia left schools closed for weeks, even though it had weakened significantly during its transition from the southern states to those in the north. This type of event can offset cicada cycles if it occurs early enough in the year — and some do. 

What Was The Impact Of This Year’s Early Government Shutdown On Virginia’s Shenandoah National Park?

Those hiking the Appalachian Trail this year are surely thankful that the United States government shutdown didn’t last longer, as it would have prevented them from legally traversing 101 miles of the legendary footpath in the Shenandoah National Park. While we’re happy that some of the potential impacts of the shutdown were averted when Trump finally caved under political pressure, the fiasco had a number of other consequences (and sadly, more may be looming in the near future).

Researcher and ecologist Jeff Atkins has been diligently collecting water samples from streams within Shenandoah National Park for an awe-inspiring eight years. All of his commitment was for science. The Trump shutdown prevented him from continuing his work. That was the case beginning on December 22 of last year.

The shutdown was one big middle finger in the direction of the 40-year-old scientific undertaking, which was a large scale and long-term study meant to monitor wetland recovery after acid rain poisoned the environment decades ago.

Atkins was notably angry about the shutdown. “It’s very frustrating to have this needless disruption,” he said. “This is the biggest gap we’ve had.”

He wasn’t the only one whose work was interrupted because of Trump’s imaginary immigration concerns. Literally tens of thousands of other scientists and researchers felt the effects of the shutdown. At least a half-dozen government agencies and organizations that pave the way for research funding or scientific advancement found themselves without the resources or legal backing to continue their work.

Agencies that were affected include the NSF, USDA, NASA, and the NOAA.

Not only were these agencies unable to continue their work, but many whose paychecks come from the government went without pay until the shutdown ended. They weren’t even legally allowed to check their email! This restriction meant that organizations couldn’t coordinate upcoming events, many of which had to be cancelled.

Shenandoah wasn’t the only park that was damaged by the shutdown. Joshua Tree National Park may take centuries to fully recover from the damage done by people who were allowed in after officials decided to keep the park open (government employees weren’t allowed to do their jobs, which meant there was no cleanup during the shutdown). When it ended, rangers reported that the remains of at least 100 campfires in prohibited zones were found. $1 million in revenue was lost, but that wouldn’t even come close to paying for the damage that was done.

Without a new deal in place, another shutdown could come as soon as October 1, 2019 (and probably will).

What Is The Wilderness So Important?

The Wilderness is designated areas of land that are protected by the United States Government. Not just any federal land is qualified to be considered Wilderness. In fact, the land must have scientific, educational and historical value. Currently, our preservation efforts contain 110 million acres located across 44 states (including the U.S. Territory Puerto Rico). But why does our government go through all this effort to preserve this land? There are several reasons as to why preserving the Wilderness and protecting it from over-development are important.

One of the most important aspects is ecological. As more and more towns and cities are developed, the more places for wildlife creatures to go is limited. Having a preserved portion of land helps biological diversity and gives a home to many species of animals that would otherwise have no place to live. Having Wilderness also provides us with oxygen while filtering the carbon dioxide out of the air. By doing this, this helps damper climate change.

Another important aspect of Wilderness that is often forgotten is the recreational benefits. Many preserves have areas to hike and camp giving the opportunity for many to appreciate and be one with nature. This tourism can be a source of income for many towns that are not fully urbanized and do not have a city and often wouldn’t be visited.

In Virginia, one of the most popular Wilderness areas is the Shenandoah Wilderness in Shenandoah National Park. There are over 175 miles of trails and an abundance of woodland creatures such as deer, bears, bobcats, turkeys and over 200 species of birds. The most popular Wilderness area is Boundary Waters Canoe Area in Minnesota. On the Canadian border, there are over 2,200 camping sites that are accessible by canoe. Wildlife such as wolves, otters, moose, beavers, frogs, and bats can be found.

 

 

How Far Can A Human Hike In A Day?

Everyone is different. We’re all different shapes and sizes, and we all have metabolisms of varying speed. These are only a few of the factors that help determine how much ground we can expect to cover if we walk all day long. There are others. Hiking isn’t for the faint of heart, especially when done over an extended period of time, but here are the best indicators for how much a human can hike in a day.

First, here are the factors that could make your hike easier or more difficult.

Water is a hiker’s biggest concern. If you’re new to hiking and expect to go no further than five or ten miles, then a few water bottles will suffice. If you’re on a backpacking trip, you need to invest in a canteen so you can drink more water and drink it more often.

Weight is a hiker’s second biggest concern. A thru-hiker’s backpack will usually weigh between 20 and 30 pounds, although ultra-light packs might only amount to 10 or 12. If you’re only hiking for a day, you probably don’t need more than 5 or 10 pounds of food and water.

Food is important. Make sure you eat more than usual for breakfast, and then continue to snack throughout the day. Your body will start to burn calories faster than you consume them. You can compensate by eating more often and drinking.

Rest is another issue with which you may have to contend. You’ll notice how much this factor affects your physical limitations if you hike for more than a day at a time. Even an hour or two less rest than you normally get can make an enormous impact on your overall hike.

Obviously weather is a factor as well. Rain doesn’t always slow you down, but heat will definitely lower your physical limitations. Try to hike on a cool, brisk day if possible.

Over normal terrain, a healthy individual can expect to walk at least 20 to 30 miles in summertime daylight hours when well-hydrated and in low heat conditions. Food will also determine eventual outcomes. While it is possible to cover this distance even while hiking up and down mountains, it’s much more difficult. This is a feat better attempted after one or two months of low-mileage days. That gives your body time to adjust physically so you can prevent overuse injuries.

The current record for average miles hiked in a day on the Appalachian Trail was set by a Belgian dentist, and stands at a whopping 53!

What To Eat If You’re Hiking In The Winter

Staying hydrated and full of calories is important for any hiker. In the winter, it’s important to intake more calories because your body burns more calories attempting to keep your body warm and moving. It’s estimated depending on the temperature outside, your body weight and your clothing and gear, that you can burn anywhere between 100 to 500 extra calories an hour when hiking in the winter.

When determining what to eat, it’s important to understand biochemistry. First, there are carbohydrates which are quickly broken down into blood sugar which is then used by your muscles for energy. These are the best source for reliable quick energy. However, if you eat too much of them in the winter, you run the risk of them being used to quickly and causing a “sugar crash”. To prevent a “sugar crash”, it is also important to eat fats. Also, fats take longer to digest and provide energy, the energy lasts longer without the risk of crashing. Another important thing to eat is protein, although this doesn’t provide you with “quick energy” but helps provide amino acids to rebuild muscles.

Suggest breakfasts for a winter hike include:

  • whole wheat toast with peanut butter
  • oatmeal or hot cereals
  • greek yogurt with granola
  • cheese, fruit, and nuts

Your body will take longer to digest the protein and fat so it’s important to have these in the morning so you are not hungry immediately after hiking. However, it is still important to have some carbs to get your metabolism started in the morning.

We do not recommend stopping to eat lunch as you don’t want to be waiting in the cold for too long. We recommend grazing while hiking and fueling on more cheese, nuts, fruit, and rice crackers.

That night when you are finished with your hike, it’s important to replenish the nutrients that were lost throughout the day. A hearty dinner consisting of pasta, rice, bread, cruciferous vegetables, beans, and lean protein will restore stored fats and glycogen.

It will also be important to stay well hydrated as water helps break down the food which will, in turn, give you energy. Even though it might be cold out, you are still sweating which causes a loss in water. There’s a statistic that says if you are 5% dehydrated your metabolism can slow down 20-30%. Dehydration symptoms include:

  • headache
  • weakness
  • fatigue
  • irritability
  • loss of appetite

Transporting water in the cold is difficult due to the potential for it to freeze. However, there are many brands of bottles that are meant to be used in the winter months. Keep in mind, caffeine and alcohol are a diuretics and may aid in dehydration. We do not recommend drinking either before or during the hike. But we do recommend hot chocolate and thinking you are in relaxing in Miami Beach!

The Most Dangerous Animals You Might Encounter In The West Virginia Wilderness

We don’t often think of the dangerous animals that often lurk all around us, mostly because humans have no natural predators. Usually, it’s through our own stupidity that we get attacked or injured by these otherwise miraculous creatures. We don’t properly secure food, or, even worse, we purposely feed the local wildlife. Whatever the reason for the danger, here are a few of the animals of which you might want to be wary if you decide to go exploring the West Virginia wilderness!

  1. Although more rare than in other states nearby, you might see a black bear now and then. These aren’t usually animals to be feared. Instead, learn to respect and understand them. Black bears are normally timid, but become far more aggressive when they realize that humans are a constant source of food. Secure any food properly when hiking or camping, and bear sightings will become a lot less scary.
  2. If you’re not a fan of snakes, then maybe the outdoors of West Virginia isn’t for you. The state is known for its timber rattlesnakes, which are quite venomous, and can grow up to five feet long. You’ll most often spot them sunbathing during summer. The snake is dangerous because of its equipment: long fangs, impressive venom yield, and hey–it’s quite big, too. Luckily, they usually give you quite a bit of warning before they decide to strike.
  3. You might also run into a northern copperhead during your travels. They’re less dangerous than timber rattlesnakes, and they too will give you sufficient time to retreat (usually).
  4. You might also notice a coyote or two, but you’re more likely to hear them at night when you’re out exploring for a day or two. They usually won’t bother you much, but be careful. They’re more likely to go after small children or anyone walking alone.
  5. West Virginia is home to the venomous black widow spider. Most spiders can’t harm you with their venom, but the black widow is an exception. You’ll want to watch out for the black spiders. You can identify them by the red hourglass pattern on their abdomens. Like all spiders, they keep the insect population down–so try not to hate them too much. You’ll find these spiders lurking about piles of wood or rocks.

Is West Virginia A Good Place For A Section Hike?

If you enjoy hiking, then you’re probably accustomed to trails that extend for quite a few miles. Some follow loops, while others force you to turn around when you finish. The Appalachian Trail (AT) extends thousands of miles from Georgia to Maine, but did you know that it goes through a small part of West Virginia? This is a great place to sample a small portion of the trail as part of a section hike. You might take a couple of days or you might go out for a week. That choice is yours.

What is a section hike?

Understanding the concept of section-hiking is dependent on your knowledge of thru-hiking. Those who attempt to one-shot the AT over a span of months are thru-hikers. Those who wish to complete only a small portion at a time are section hikers. They might choose to hike only during the day and find lodging elsewhere, or they might enjoy camping out each night. West Virginia is a great place to see what a section hike has to offer.

  1. West Virginia is home to only four miles of the Appalachian Trail, and also home to the famous trail-town, Harper’s Ferry. This is a good spot for a day-hike, but you can also head out to experience another twenty miles on the border of Virginia. There are shelters along the AT, which means there are easy stopping points. This makes it a good segment hike for beginners.
  2. The Dolly Sods Wilderness has 47 miles of trails to explore across 17,700 acres. It won’t be an excruciating hike, but it’ll be a scenic one. You’ll traverse meadows, bogs, forested areas, and follow alongside meandering streams. There are a lot of starting and stopping point options, but this is a good trail if you have even a little experience with backpacking excursions.
  3. The 47,000 acres of Monongahela National Forest will lead you to the Cranberry Wilderness. This is an out and back set of trails, which means at the end you’ll have to turn around and repeat the miles. This is one of the best hikes in West Virginia.
  4. Some of the best trails in the country are alpine points high above sea level, which is why you should definitely add Spruce Knob to your list of potential segment hikes. The highest peak is at 4,863 feet and is extremely isolated. You’ll have to walk about 16.5 miles to get there, but the journey is well worth it.

Top Four Health Benefits Of Hiking

Getting outside to hike benefits your mental and physical health in many ways, according to New Jersey Employment Attorneys. Hiking allows you to commune with nature and it gets you outside with other people. You get fit and you have fun at the same time. Here are four health benefits of hiking and why you should incorporate hiking into your fitness routine.

Lose Weight

Obesity is on the rise and a lot of it has to do with the fact that we spend most of our days sitting down. Most people are not getting the exercise that they need and this is leading to weight gain. Hiking burns lots of calories because you are walking over different types of terrain and going long distances. Hiking is easy on your joints and you can burn 500 calories or more per hour when you hike. Hiking also boosts your metabolism so you keep burning calories after the hike.

Get Fit

Hiking tones your entire body and your butt, abs and hamstrings are going to get a fantastic workout. Hiking makes your bones stronger and it also strengthens your core. Your hips are going to get stronger and so are your leg muscles. If you want to make your back stronger you can put weights in a backpack. Start with light weights and gradually increase the size of the weights. This additional weight is also going to make your body burn more calories.

Lower Your Risk Of Disease

Regular hiking can lower your risk of many diseases. Your blood pressure is going to go down when you hike and you also reduce your risk of heart disease and stroke. Hiking regulates your blood sugar levels which is going to reduce your risk of getting diabetes. Your cholesterol levels are going to decrease which is good for your heart health. Your body will process glucose better which is good for your overall health. Studies show that regular hiking can also reduce your risk of getting some types of cancer, including colon and breast cancer.

Boost Your Mood

Getting out in the fresh air is going to boost your mood and being out in nature makes you feel better. You get to spend time in the sun which makes you feel good and if you hike with other people you are also going to enjoy being social which is a big mood booster. Hiking in nature will boost your creativity and you just feel better when you spend time outdoors. You are also less likely to get depressed when you hike and hiking makes you feel happier. These effects can last for a day or two.

Hiking allows you to explore new places and it will make you healthier at the same time. You get to explore new territory and the more you hike, the more you want to hike. If you are ready to get fit and you want to have fun while you are doing it, get out a map, lace up your hiking shoes, and hit the road.

The Oceans and Wilderness Need Each Other: Here’s Why

The oceans of the world are vast, wide, and deep. They constitute about 70 to 80 percent of the earth’s surface, and if one were to look at a Google planet shot of the ocean, one could easily get the sense that there is much of the oceans and seas that seems to have gone on with their life even while human activity on the water has risen exponentially since the first exploratory ships of the Vikings.

Everyone pretty much knows the definition of “ocean.” But how many people know the definition of “wilderness”? While there is a general understanding of the term, there seems to be no hard and fast definition of the term when it comes to the ocean.

Why would the ocean have to have a definition of wilderness? It is an interesting question. Most of us think of wilderness as an area of land that has had minimal to no human contact or disruption. In some ways that would seem like a good definition for the ocean, as an area of the water that has had minimal to no human impact.

But the reality is that virtually no ocean fits a land-based definition of wilderness. There are areas, however, that have had such minimal human contact that they essentially are the areas that revitalize the entire ocean because of their relative pristineness to allow for breeding of many animals and fish species, restoration of coral reefs and other important actions that keep the oceans vibrant.

There is a push to create wilderness areas in the oceans, similar to wilderness created in various countries to protect the sites from human impact, and especially restricting those impacts that do occur (after all, some wilderness areas are popular tourist attractions).

The question arises about what should be the definition of a wilderness in the ocean? Members of the Wilderness Conservation Society and a professor from Australia set out to create a definition of a wilderness area, using such criteria as those areas which have as little impact from 19 different stressors – including fishing, commercial shipping, light pollution and invasive species.

What was found was that less than 15 percent of the ocean could even be defined as “wilderness” based on these criteria – a patch of water in the southern Pacific Ocean and some small areas near both poles.

However, could a wilderness be created through working of the U.S. Wilderness Act, where areas that people deem worthy of protection are protected by statute? Even areas that have been spoiled may be established as wilderness areas to severely restrict and all human use In the future.

While much damage has been done to the numerous ecosystems, many of them are not irreparably harmed if we take the lead in preserving some of these areas now and prevent further degradation for future generations.