Facts About Cranberry Wilderness Located in West Virginia

Today we will talk about the Cranberry Wilderness in West Virginia. This wilderness is managed by the Forest Service. The map was designated by the United States Congress in the year of 1983. This stretch of wilderness covers 47,742 acres in the state of West Virginia. The Cranberry Wilderness is located in the Pocahontas and Webster Counties of the state. Cranberry Wilderness is known for its steep valleys as well as broad mountains, with elevations ranging from 2,400 feet to 4,600 feet and climbing. Its size makes it the largest wilderness in the eastern United States.

The Williams River forms the northern border of the Cranberry Wilderness, while the Southern Fork of the Cranberry River sits on the southwestern border of this wilderness. In the wilderness, you will find that most of the trees found in the Cranberry Wilderness consist of Appalachian hardwoods. You will also see some Red Spruce in the much higher elevations. Cranberry Wilderness is also contained in the Black Bear Sanctuary. Some of the wild animals that live in the wilderness include the White Tail Deer, the fox, rabbits, and many others. Due to the plant life of the wilderness, the water conditions are naturally acidic and this limits the fish population somewhat. Along the wilderness, there are some different hiking trails that are maintained by the West Virginia Wilderness Service.

If you love the outdoors and being within nature, we highly suggest checking out the beautiful Cranberry Wilderness to view some wonderful mountain landscape. This is a great tourist destination as well as a great place for the citizens of West Virginia to visit to see all of the glory of nature. You are sure to witness a lush amount of plant and animal life making this a great place for any and all photographers interested in taking some great mountain photographs.

Big Draft Wilderness Area – A West Virginia Adventure

In 2009, Congress designated a little more than 5,000 acres of West Virginia as the Big Draft Wilderness. This area is located in southeast West Virginia and is a part of the Monongahela National Forest. Big Draft comprises most of the southern part of the forest and the name comes from one of the Greenbrier River tributaries, Big Draft. The wilderness area is about five miles from White Sulfur Springs and near the Blue Bend Recreation Area.

The Big Draft is popular with hunters, hikers, anglers, and paddlers. There is a 14-mile trail system which is open to the public, including equestrians and hikers. The only exception is Blue Bend Loop which prohibits horses or any type of stock.

Wildlife is abundant in the area and includes black bear, wild turkey, whitetail deal, cottontail rabbit, grouse, and coyote.

The Big Draft was created under the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009. This is the smallest of the national wilderness areas in West Virginia. While not as well known as some of the other wilderness areas, it is very accessible for hikers.

The area contains just a few loops. The wilderness is accessed from Blue Bend Recreation Area. This is a great starting point because the recreation area includes 20 nice camp sites located on Anthony Creek. There is also a pavilion constructed by the CCC, warm showers and flush toilets. There is no fee to park and there are signs to the footbridge which spans Anthony Creek and takes hikers into the wilderness area. The early trails are easy to follow, although they are not well marked.

There are nice overlooks along the trails and the summit sits at about 1,000 feet in elevation. The trails are well-maintained and can get steep along the way.

Big Draft Wilderness Area is the newest wilderness area in West Virgina (not in Tennessee). Still, it offers nice trails and scenic views and is worth a visit.

The Endangered Species Act Of 1973 Works To Protect Endangered Animals And Plant Life

The Endangered Species Act was signed into law in 1973. It is considered by many, including conversation groups to be one of the most important and most effective environmental laws ever passed. This law protects animal species which are in danger of extinction. The Act is extremely popular among the American population and provides a safety net for plants, wildlife, fish, and insects. The Act has been upheld as constitutional by the Supreme Court.

In the early 1900s, the passenger pigeon disappeared from the earth. This extinction, along with the bison nearing extinction resulted in the formation of wildlife conservation in the United States. Conservation advocates introduced the concept of extinction to the public and the movement was born.

The Endangered Species Act has protected imperiled plants and wildlife for over 40 years. The Act has kept several of our nation’s treasures from extinction including the Florida manatee, the bald eagle, and the California condor. The Act has an amazing success rate. Of the more than 2,000 animals and plants protected under the Act, less than one percent have gone extinct.

The Act is also beneficial to people by helping maintain our natural resources. Much of the reason for our clean water and air is due to the Act’s requirements for protecting plant life and animals.

Unfortunately, even though Congress stepped up and showed global leadership in the fight to protect animals and plants from extinction, other countries have been slow to do the same. Throughout the world, there is an alarming rate of disappearing specifies. Over the last 200 years, scientists estimate more than 500 species have gone extinct.

The Endangered Species Act provides balanced solutions that pass the common sense test. When landowners, government agencies, and concerned citizens all do their part, we can protect our endangered wildlife as well as their habitats.

What Is The Clean Water Act And How Did It Come To Be?

This post is coming our good friend Ben Bronston, an environmentalist and lawyer in Corpus Christi, Texas. Since his town is on the water, he’s been advocate of keeping the water clean in his city. Check out his website: https://361lawyers.com/

The Clean Water Act (or CWA) is something of an amalgamation of multiple pieces of legislation involving the research and control of water pollution.The first CWA, called the Federal Water Pollution Act, was passed in 1948. In 1972 it was completely rewritten via legislation entitled Federal Water Pollution Act Amendment of 1972.

The major amendments to the Act are the Clean Water Act of 1977, and the Water Quality Act of 1987. It has not been directly amended since then, though there has been other legislation pertaining to water quality signed into law. Some notable ones are the Great Lakes Critical Programs Act of 1990 (a joint agreement between the United States and Canada), and the Safe Drinking Water Act. Newer laws that contradict parts of the Clean Water Act are generally judged to supersede the CWA, though not always depending on the situation and the judges involved.

The 1972 CWA was put into place in response to public outcry caused by an event in 1969. The Cuyahoga River, which flows into Lake Erie literally caught fire in that year, due to the level of toxic waste that had been dumped. While this had happened several times since 1868 (13, to be precise), the fire in 1969 was large and destructive enough for the public to demand the U.S. Government did something.

This outcry is why the 1972 CWA specifically makes it illegal to dump waste into lakes and rivers. It also gave the EPA the power to set regulatory standards.

The Clean Water Act has been largely successful in its goals. Lake Erie is no longer so toxic it can catch fire, and that’s just one example. Unfortunately, several laws involving water pollution have been rolled back in recent years, and several others are rarely enforced. These facts make it difficult to gauge how much effect the current CWA actually has.

What Is The History And Purpose Of The Clean Air Act?

Signed into law in 1963 by President Lyndon B. Johnson, the Clean Air Act is perhaps the most comprehensive air quality laws throughout the world. It was one of the first of such laws passed in the United States and has been the bedrock of many environmental laws since.

It’s not the very first, however. The first law that pertained to air pollution was the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955. Contrary to the name, it wasn’t about controlling air pollution. Instead, it devoted federal funds to the study of air pollution and its effects.

That said, it was the first legislation about actually controlling air pollution. This law remains in effect today, though it’s been amended multiple times to adjust the changing needs of environmental protection. The last time it was modified was in 1990.

The 1990 amendment, formulated in large part by William K. Reilly who was the EPA president at the time, did a number of things. At the time, it was discovered that the ozone layer was beginning to fall apart. Since that layer protects the Earth from UV rays (among other things), it was important to study ways to repair the problem. It also targeted acid rain, vehicle emissions, toxic air pollution, and set several federal standards for other types of gasoline emissions.

It also covered noise pollution, as it had been discovered that the problem could compound other environmental issues negatively. And perhaps most important, it allowed for civil suits. That is, it allowed citizens to sue companies in order to enforce federal statuettes. This gave citizens the opportunity to receive justice should a nearby business dump toxic waste or other harmful chemicals.

The Clean Air Act has not been updated since 1990, and many scientists are showing concern about the state of planet Earth at this point. Climate change is becoming a growing problem, and the act is due for another amendment. However, while there have been multiple amendments introduced, none of them have made it past committee let alone actually been voted on.

The National Environmental Policy Act Was The Start Of Federal Environmental Policy

The National Environmental Policy Act was first enacted in 1970 and was the first federal law designed to help protect the environment. The Act established the President’s Council on Environmental Quality. In the years leading up to the passage of the Act, many Americans were growing concerned about pollution and the impact on the environment. This Act directed all branches of the federal government to consider the impact to the environment before implementing any new legislation or starting any major federal actions in the life sciences.

Requirements under this Act are invoked when buildings, airports, highways, military complexes, parkland purchases or any other type of federal activity is proposed. An Environmental Impact Statement and an Environmental Assessment must be completed analyzing all courses of action for the impact on the environment.

Prior to this legislation, several bills designed to protect the environment had been presented to Congress. None had passed until a major oil spill occurred outside of Santa Barbara, CA. There were more than 3,500 birds killed and the damage to the environment was staggering. Other sea animals such as elephant seals and sea lions were also killed because of the oil spill and the impact on commercial fishing and tourism was devastating.

This oil spill, the 3rd largest in US history, was not the only reason for the National Environmental Policy Act, but is was certainly a considerable influence.

The Act does not specifically mandate environmental protections. Instead, it sets out environmental policy for the federal government and requires that an environmental analysis takes place when proposing any major federal project.

The end result of this Act is that it forces federal government agencies to factor in the impact to the environment when they are considering any major construction projects. The weakness of this Act is that it does not require federal agencies to reject a project, only to note the environmental impacts.

Discover The National Park Service Act

The National Park Service Act is one that a lot of people take advantage of each year. This is an act that was signed into law by Woodrow Wilson in 1916 and this is the same piece of legislation that would start the National Park Service as well as the Department of the Interior. So this is an act that did several things for people and it is the reason why there are national parks in place for everyone in America to enjoy.

The lands the act protects are the land that is inside of the national parks as deemed by the Department of Interior Secretary and approved by the President. These parks include Yellowstone, Great Smoky Mountains, and a host of other parks as well.

The punishments that are brought forth by the act have the same type of penalties that are brought forth under the penal code of the United States of America. So this is going to make it easier for people to know what kind of changes are made to the criminal law. Now something else that is interesting is the act does allow some parks to have their own local area type of laws in place as well to help prevent specific damage. For example, Dune Grass in Michigan is protected, but that would not apply in Yellowstone.

The National Park Service Act is an act that was passed by the United States House of Representatives in 1915, but it is an act that was put in place to protect the beauty that we all have come to love in the National Parks. These parks have become the envy of a lot of countries and it is easy to see why when people see just how beautiful the National Park System in America is.

Tips For Hiking In A Group

Sometimes you need a friendly group activity to keep you motivated and energized. If you’re not an avid hiker or you prefer to be around others more often than not, then group hiking might be your best option for a great bit of exercise and quick pick-me-up that will last days. The energy you accumulate from this kind of activity endures for a while. If you do decide to stick with a group, however, there are a few things you should keep in mind while you’re out on the trail.

First and most importantly, be sure to pace yourself to the slowest person in your group. Don’t show any aggravation, and try to be patient. If you’re the slowest member of the party, don’t let your speed worry you too much. Even though everyone will have their own natural rhythm, it’s important to hike together as a group if you start as a group. Splitting up increases the chance that a person or pair get lost, and that can create big problems later on especially if someone slips, falls or trips and suffers a head injury. 

On the other hand, if your group starts out too big–more than ten people is a good indicator–then try splitting down the middle. Try not to start at the same time, or you’ll still spend most of the day trying to keep up with the other group. It’s not a competition.

Second, know where to go and how far you want to travel beforehand. You don’t need to follow your plan to the letter, but making one will help you get a general idea of what different people want out of the hike and what everyone thinks they can handle individually. If one person is only interested in walking a mile-long path while another desires a 22-mile vertical rock climb up the tallest mountain in the land, then perhaps it’s time for these plans to diverge.

If you’re planning a longer hike with a bigger number of people, then try designating a leader and a sweeper. Your leader should be a fit hiker who knows the lay of the land; someone who is comfortable setting the pace for others to follow while paying attention to the needs of the people behind. Is it time for a rest? He or she needs to be comfortable providing that guidance when others can’t or won’t speak up.

The sweeper is the person who trails behind the group to make sure no one ventures off on their own because they couldn’t keep up the place. This person also needs to be fit in order to keep up even in the worst of circumstances.

When in a group, it’s important to decide when and where you’ll want to stop ahead of time. Even though you might take a number of short breathers in between these stops, it’s good for other members of the group to know where you intend to be during each portion of the hike. It’s smart to hand out maps and place markers where trails intersect, or where there are sources of water present. These are the best places to break.

No matter what, it’s everyone’s responsibility to keep everyone else safe. Don’t go off on your own or get fed up and leave others behind, take note of everyone else’s limitations in comparison with your own, and maintain patience with other hikers when you’re a part of their group. Whatever you do, do not go hiking in Phoenix

Tips For Hiking Solo

Hiking can be a fun activity either alone or with a partner, but sometimes you just need the time to yourself. It doesn’t help that having someone else along means you either have to keep up with someone’s faster pace, or fall back so they can keep up with yours. Both instances are annoying. The problem is, hiking alone can be a dangerous affair no matter where you go or how difficult the elevation. There are steps you can take to mitigate the dangers, and so here are a few tips for hiking solo whether you’re a beginner or a pro.

First, be sure to bring a backpack with a few essentials. What you bring mostly depends on where you decide to go. If you’re hiking someplace a little bit warmer, bring extra sunscreen. If it’s cold, then bring a few extra layers just in case. Stock up on more water than you really need. If you roll an ankle and can’t move, you might be stuck for a while–especially if there’s no cell reception. If you’re hiking a path that isn’t well-populated, then you might even want to bring another pair of clothes, extra first aid materials, food and water.

One of the easiest ways to avoid more trouble than you can handle is by taking the well-travelled path. The more people are running around, the more help you’ll have when you need it. If your phone doesn’t get service, someone else’s might. There are plenty of people who hike the same trails every day, and they meet plenty of people who need a helping hand once in awhile. They’re used to it, so don’t hesitate to ask.

Speaking of well-travelled paths, make sure you’ve been on it before. A solo hike isn’t the time to find a new place for adventure, especially if it’s a longer hike. If you’re going on a two mile trek in the middle of a big city, then go for it. If not, then proceed with caution. Another thing to keep in mind are any dangerous animals or poisonous leaves in the area. Do your research and know the area as best you can.

Make sure people know where you are at all times. Tell your friends or family when you’re planning a hike. If you have a routine, make sure someone is familiar with it. If there’s a ranger station, then sign in. These stations help others find you if you go missing. Better safe than sorry, so don’t be lazy and skip this step if you’re going it alone.

Don’t forget to check the weather before you leave home, because it can greatly impact how strenuous a hike might be. The mountains will always be there in the future, but the storms go away in a day or two. If it’s a hundred degrees outside and the sun is blaring, you might want to sit this one out. Even if your body can handle the strain normally, any injury can pummel you to the ground quickly when complemented by extreme weather conditions.

No matter what you do, plan for the worst and be careful!

Learn About The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966

The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 is an act of legislation that was passed with the intention of preserving historical as well as archaeological sites throughout the United States of America. The Act helped establish the National Registry of Historic Places, the list of National Historic Landmarks and the State Historic Preservation Office. The legislation was signed into law on October 15, 1966.

The National Registry of Historic Places, which is ran by the National Park Service is the country’s official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures and other areas worthy of being preserved for future generations. Here is where they are given the distinction of being “historic properties.” The official process of being considered an historic property is called the Section 106 review process. The review process is led by the Advisory Council and helps develop policies and guidelines. To be considered they must mean one of our criteria; a historical event, a historical person, historical design/construction or information potential (i.e archaeological dig site).  To achieve this status does not prevent a site from being damaged or deconstructed but does provide the opportunity for grants, loans and tax incentives. The Section 106 review process takes into consideration the benefits of making something an historic place as well as any adverse effects.

The purpose of  the preservation act is to help retain diverse elements of the past, perpetuate the distinctiveness of identities of places, involve amateur in landscape care, and to practice conversation approach to environmental change. The National Historic Preservation Act has had a major benefit to the fields of archaeology, history, and historical architecture. No longer do these fields have to be in the world of academia. They have formed what is known as a culture resource management team and help others classify their findings so they can be submitted into the National Register of Historic Places.